Новая администрация США налаживает отношения с Пекином быстрее, чем с Москвой

 

Дональд Трамп совершенствует свой китайский, пишет Коммерсант.ру

Госсекретарь США Рекс Тиллерсон завершил свой первый визит в Азию, посетив Японию, Южную Корею и Китай. Поездка проходила на фоне импичмента президенту Южной Кореи, нового ракетного испытания КНДР и роста напряженности между азиатскими союзниками США и Китаем. Главным итогом стало подтверждение готовности Белого дома отказаться от прежней антикитайской риторики Дональда Трампа и уже в ближайшее время провести встречу лидеров двух стран. В отношении КНДР Вашингтон намерен следовать политике сдерживания, не исключая ужесточения санкций и даже появления у Токио и Сеула ядерного оружия. Опрошенные «Ъ» эксперты пришли к выводу: турне Рекса Тиллерсона показало отсутствие у Белого дома новых подходов, на которые рассчитывали в Москве. При этом диалог с Китаем, которому сулили роль главного оппонента США, в итоге может начаться гораздо быстрее, чем нормализация отношений с РФ.

Завершившаяся вчера в Пекине дипломатическая «трехходовка» бывшего топ-менеджера Exxon Mobil 64-летнего Рекса Тиллерсона стала для него самым серьезным испытанием после вступления в должность главы Госдепа США 1 февраля. Поездка преемника Джона Керри, в которой его сопровождал всего один журналист — корреспондент американского издания Independent Journal Review,— проходила в экстремальных условиях. На фоне неопределенной ситуации в Сеуле, вызванной драматичной отставкой президента Пак Кын Хе, Северная Корея провела испытание ракетного двигателя большой тяги, которое лидер КНДР Ким Чон Ын назвал «революцией 18 марта».

Кроме того, в Пекине Рексу Тиллерсону предстоял непростой разговор о том, как понимать антикитайские выпады Дональда Трампа, а также его собственную жесткую риторику в адрес Пекина, которой он следовал на слушаниях в Конгрессе США во время своего утверждения в должности главы Госдепа.

От ненависти к новой любви

Впрочем, самой интригующей оказалась финальная часть поездки Рекса Тиллерсона — его завершившийся вчера двухдневный визит в Пекин, кульминацией которого стала встреча с председателем КНР Си Цзиньпином. Напомним, что смена власти в Белом доме вызвала новую напряженность в отношениях Вашингтона и Пекина: ее слагаемыми стали как жесткие высказывания Дональда Трампа в адрес Пекина в ходе предвыборной гонки, так и его телефонный разговор с лидером Тайваня Цай Инвэнь в декабре прошлого года. Первые с 1979 года переговоры избранного президента США с главой непризнанного КНР «островного Китая» породили рассуждения о том, что Вашингтон начнет отход от политики «одного Китая», которого придерживались все предыдущие администрации.

Однако в ходе визита в Пекин Рекс Тиллерсон старательно избегал острых углов и ограничился лишь кратким упоминанием вопроса прав человека и религиозных свобод в КНР. Появившись перед журналистами, госсекретарь США и председатель КНР Си Цзиньпин демонстрировали, что в отношениях двух держав нет никаких катаклизмов. «Вы сказали, что китайско-американские отношения могут быть только дружественными, я и ценю это,— заявил китайский лидер и добавил: — Наше сотрудничество идет в том направлении, в каком мы и хотим его развивать. Мы оба надеемся на новую эру конструктивного взаимодействия».

Опрошенные «Ъ» азиатские и российские эксперты обращают внимание на то, что администрация Дональда Трампа стремительно отходит от прежней антикитайской риторики, в связи с чем ее курс по отношению к Пекину все больше напоминает политику Барака Обамы. «Еще недавно, в ходе избирательной кампании в США, Трамп представлял Китай как главного врага Америки. Но визит Тиллерсона в Пекин показал, что в Вашингтоне сделали драматический разворот и решили сделать упор на сотрудничестве, понимая, что с экономической точки зрения КНР — слишком большая величина, чтобы ее игнорировать»,— пояснил «Ъ» независимый гонконгский эксперт Брайан Ен.

Схожего мнения придерживается его российский коллега, главный научный сотрудник Института Дальнего Востока РАН Александр Ломанов. «Азиатская политика Трампа все больше съезжает в колею его предшественника и следует прежней инерции. Слагаемые этой политики — прежние подходы к решению корейского кризиса, предполагающие давление на Пхеньян, продолжение сотрудничества с Китаем при отсутствии видимых признаков скорейшей нормализации отношений с Россией, в результате чего Трамп может встретиться с китайским лидером раньше, чем с российским»,— пояснил «Ъ» господин Ломанов.

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